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‘End the Cage Age’: European Citizens’ Initiative for farmed animals

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end the cage age campaign photo girl in pig factory farm holding cuddly toy
Edited Carpet Photo (1)
Schuman square, 2019

The ‘End the Cage Age’ European Citizens’ Initiative calls on the European Union to phase out the use of cages in animal farming. The Initiative received 1.4 million signatures from all across Europe. This shows that the welfare of farmed animals is a shared concern for citizens.

The number of signatures, verified by national civil servants, easily exceeds the threshold of 1 million required for a European Citizens’ Initiative to be valid. ‘End the Cage Age’ is only the sixth Initiative, and the first for farmed animals, to satisfy this requirement. The signatures also outstripped the prescribed minimum thresholds in 18 EU member states. This outstanding civic mobilisation was the result of outreach by a coalition of over 170 organisations across Europe.

The response of the European Commission, which is preparing a revision of the EU’s animal welfare legislation, is expected during 2021.

Why we need to end the use of cages

The EU has taken some first steps in improving the lives of farmed animals, such as requiring cages for hens to contain ‘enrichment’ like scratching areas and perches, as well as placing certain limits on the time when cages for female pigs (sows) and calves can be used.

Cyprus Pigs Investigation 2013
Crates for sows in early pregnancy
Crates for sows until weaning

However, when animals are concentrated in large numbers in confined spaces, they do not experience a life worth living. There is a great deal of scientific evidence that farmed animals suffer in cages, yet every year in the EU over 300 million still spend all or part of their lives in cages, pens or stalls.

For example, even in ‘enriched’ cages egg-laying hens have only the space of about an A4 sheet of paper, which does not allow them to perform basic needs such as dustbathing and wing-flapping. Rabbits raised for meat have a similarly tiny space and some are unable to stretch up or out fully and generally do not have enough space to perform a single hop. Almost all adult female pigs spend nearly half of every year inside crates, in which they cannot even turn around.

‘Enriched’ cages for hens
caged white rabbits. Industrial setting
Cages for rabbits

This confinement causes tremendous suffering. Such treatment is not only inhumane but also unnecessary, as cage-free systems are both viable and in use. Now the majority of hens kept commercially in the EU are farmed in alternative systems, whether barn, free range or organic.

The public overwhelmingly favours improving the welfare of farmed animals. An official Eurobarometer public opinion poll found that 94% of EU citizens believe that protecting the welfare of farm animals is important and 82% think farm animals should be better protected than they are now.

very young calf in pen with straw on floor
Cages for calves
Cages for geese


While the EU has been slow to take action, EU member states have taken the lead. Cages for laying hens are, or soon will be, phased out in Austria, Czechia, Germany, Luxembourg and Slovakia. Cages for meat rabbits are banned in Austria and will be in Belgium. Crates in which sows are confined around the time of their insemination are already illegal in Sweden, will be illegal in Germany and their use will be limited in Denmark. Crates where sows are confined around the birth of their piglets, are illegal in Sweden and their use will be limited in Germany.

What others are saying

  • The European Commissioner for Health, Stella Kyriakides, has warmly welcomed the success of the Initiative, recognising that animal welfare is a crucial component of the European Green Deal and the Commission’s Farm to Fork Strategy.
  • The European Commissioner for Agriculture, Janusz Wojciechowski, stated during the European Parliament Hearing on the issue that we have his full support and the full support from the European Commission “to implement this transformation.”
  • Czechia is pushing for an EU-level ban on hen cages and has already put this on the agenda of the Council of the EU. Greece and Cyprus have committed to support such a ban.
  • 101 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from across the political spectrum have urged the European Commission to phase out the use of cages for farmed animals. This was initiated by MEP Eleonora Evi, the co-chair of an official group of parliamentarians working to promote cage-free farming.
  • The European Committee of the Regions supports ending the use of cages throughout Europe.
  • More than 140 scientists have called for an end to caged farming, including world-renowned ethologist and conservationist Jane Goodall, PhD, DBE, UN Messenger of Peace and founder of the Jane Goodall Institute.
  • Ten of Europe's leading food businesses, including Nestlé, Unilever and Mondelēz International, have called on the EU to phase out caging farmed animals, starting with laying hens. These companies and over 1 000 other businesses across Europe have eliminated caged eggs from their supply chain or have pledged to do so by 2025.
  • Greenpeace, organics producers IFOAM, the European Public Health Alliance, Slow Food Europe and others have backed the campaign noting the end to cages will “help address the inter-related public health, rural employment, environmental and animal welfare crises linked to caged animal farming as a central prop of industrial animal agriculture.”
  • The International Veterinary Students’ Association (IVSA), which represents nearly 40,000 members from over 70 countries, including working veterinarians, has issued a position statement calling on the EU to end the use of cages for farmed animals.

Further resources

  • The European Parliament’s research department has issued a report on the alternatives to caged housing, confirming that a cage-free future is indeed possible (November 2020).
  • A leading think-tank, the Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP), has published a report which finds that a transition to cage-free farming can be a win-win for animals, the environment and small scale farmers (October 2020).
  • We have published a report outlining the need to ban caged farming (October 2020), an overview of scientific research of caged farming (February 2021), as well as short briefings on rabbits, hens, sows, calves, ducks, geese and quail (August 2020).

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